Organic Farming Methods | Chemical-Free Agriculture in Practice:

Photo of farmer's hands holding wheat grains in sunset

Regarding organic farming methods, organic farming is the cultivation of crops using natural processes as a substitute for chemical fertilizers. Organic farming’s main aim is to establish environmentally responsible and long-lasting firms. Organic farming methods are environmentally benign because it emphasizes biological productivity, protects against soil erosion, reduces pollution, and controls soil erosion. Soil without causing any harm, as in traditional farming methods. To protect the environment and enhance wellness, organic farming should be promoted.

Organic farming methods

Fresh organic vegetables harvest. Local farmer market with vegetable box on wooden background, vegetarian food concept. Organic farming methods

Fertilizer

Since organic farmers don’t use artificial fertilizers, creating and maintaining fertile, live soil by adding organic matter is a top responsibility. Manure and composting. Using animal byproducts like poultry or blood feed are all ways organic matter can add to a landscape. Depending on whether the harvested section comes into touch with the soil, raw Manure should be applied 3–4 months before harvest because of its propensity to carry human infections.

Compost enriches the soil with organic matter, a variety of plant nutrients, and beneficial bacteria. Soil microorganisms are necessary for the breakdown of organic matter, and the transformation of the nutrients into a bioavailable, “mineralized” state since these nutrients frequently reside in an unmineralized form that is inaccessible to plants. Contrarily, artificial fertilizers are already mineralized and accessible to plants. Planting cover crops and tilling them afterwards prevents soil erosion during the runoff season and adds more organic matter to the soil. Alfalfa or clover are two examples of cover crops that fix nitrogen in the ground. Cover crops are also sown between rows of some crops, such as tree fruits, and are often planted before or after the cash crop season or concurrently with the crop rotation. To further reduce erosion, scientists and farmers are developing “no-till” and low-till organic farming techniques.

Control of pests

Natural sources are used to create organic insecticides. These include the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, used to control the pest caterpillar or plant products like pyrethrins (made from the dried flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium) or neem oil (from the seeds of Dicardirachta). Additionally allowed inorganic insecticides made from minerals like copper and Sulphur.

Organic pest control uses biological, cultural, and genetic controls in addition to insecticides to lessen pest damage. Using physical management, pests are attacked by their natural enemies, such as parasitoids like certain wasps or predatory insects like ladybugs. The most common type of cultural management to break the pest cycle is crop rotation. Last but not least, conventional plant breeding has resulted in various crops resistant to particular pests. Developing genetically varied crops and using cultivars offer genetic protection against multiple plant diseases and problems.

Organic farming methods

Farming in contours

Setting slopes along fixed elevation lines, known as contour farming, and technique used to save precipitation and lessen soil loss from surface erosion. These goals were accomplished by creating rainwater collection and retention reservoirs through furrows, crop rows, and wheel tracks across the slopes. This promotes increased infiltration and more uniform water distribution. For generations, contour farming has been carried out.

Even though planting in straight lines in rows parallel to field boundaries and regardless of the slope was a long-established practice, this method was only first used in the United States in the late 19th century. The US Soil Conservation Service promoted contouring as a crucial component of erosion management in the 1930s. This finally led to its widespread use.

This method has been shown to boost crop yields and decrease erosion while reducing fertilizer loss, energy and time usage, and machine wear. Contrary to straight-line farming, which frequently washes away topsoil, contour farming helps buffer the effects of severe rains. The use of contour farming in conjunction with techniques like strip cropping, terracing, and water diversion yields the best results.

Agricultural shift

Contrary to crop rotation, shifting agriculture involves rotating farmland to preserve soil fertility (fields). A plot of land cleared and farmed for a brief time in shifting agriculture. The grower then moves on to another property after abandoning it and allowing it to revert to its native vegetation. When the soil begins to show indications of tiredness or, more frequently, when the field is overrun with weeds, the growing season typically comes to an end. A field’s cultivation phase is often shorter than the time it takes for the land to regrow after being left fallow. Slash-and-burn is one land clearance technique in shifting agriculture; only the vast stumps left behind. After cutting and burning, the field’s trees leave behind ashes that improve the soil. After clearing the area, the soil frequently tilled using a hoe or digging stick rather than a plough.

Because shifting agriculture reduces the fertility of tropical forests, it has frequently come under attack on a philosophical level. But in areas where long-term, continuous cultivation of the same field without sophisticated systems of soil conservation and fertilizer use is harmful to soil fertility, shifting agriculture responds to tropical soil conditions. In these conditions, it is advisable to plant a field for a brief time before removing it before the soil has lost all of its nutrients.

Domestication

The process of domesticating wild animals and plants into cultivated and domesticated forms to accommodate human needs. It is, in the purest sense, the beginning of humans’ domestication of wild animals and plants. The critical distinction between domesticated animals and plants. Their wild counterparts that domestic animals and plants have developed by humans to satisfy specific requirements or preferences and have evolved to the conditions of constant care and seclusion that humans maintain for them.

The evolution of people and material civilization has significantly influenced by domestication. It has caused agriculture to emerge as a distinct method of raising animals and plants. The most modifications have occurred about their forebears in animals and plants that have used as agricultural commodities.

It is likely that vegetative reproducing plants, like tubers, domesticated before seed plants, like cereals, legumes, and other vegetables. Some plants domesticated so that their sturdy stem fibers, which can utilized to make fishing nets, could be employed.

Hence, one of the first domesticated plants in India is a prime example of a multipurpose plant:

  • seeds used to make oil.
  • Its stalks used to make fiber.
  • Its flowers and leaves used to make the drug hashish.

Tobacco is one such plant that has explicitly domesticated for the production of drugs. American Indian tribes used tobacco to prepare a narcotic drink that they then smoked. Another plant that explicitly domesticated for narcotics is the opium poppy. Tea, coffee, and cola are just a few of the many beverage plant varieties that have been found and cultivated. Humans didn’t start domesticating plants and animals until they had advanced to a point where they could satisfy their aesthetic desires for the beautiful and the ugly.

Animal training

Domesticated animals’ specialized economic use did not immediately become apparent. Hunting dogs most likely accompanied and assisted hunters. They frequently guarded populated areas and alerted the occupants to potential threats. They also consumed by humans, which may have been their primary function throughout the early stages of domestication. Early in domestication, sheep and goats ate, but they subsequently prized their milk and wool.

Cattle breeding primarily done to produce working animals and gain meat and leather, which substantially aided in the advancement of agriculture. Cows had a meagre amount of milk in the early stages of domestication, just enough to raise their young. A later stage in the history of domestication was the creation of high milk outputs, particularly with the breeding of cows for milk production.

Additionally, utilized for meat and skins the first tamed horses. Later, the horse had a significant impact on warfare. People who lived in the Middle East used chariots for battle. Over time, the horse began to used as transportation. Donkeys and camels used only for carrying loads and as means of transport. Their unpalatability precluded their use as a preferred food.

Young Woman Have Free Range Chicken Farm. She is taking care of chicken and feeding them.

The first domesticated hens sometimes used for the game. Cockfighting was critical to the large selection of these birds. Chickens later acquired religious significance. The egg production of the first domesticated hens was no more than five to ten eggs per year. Higher egg yields and improved meat qualities of hens developed at later stages of domestication. The enjoyment of owning a cat may have contributed to its early domestication. Undoubtedly, keeping cats at home was also due to their propensity for catching mice and rats. Some animals have always kept as pets for domestication goals. During Lent, when fasting from meat recommended by the church calendar, monks consumed baby bunnies, which they regarded as “fish.”

The end of the Neolithic era saw the domestication of bees for honey production. Since ancient times, honey has played a significant part in human nourishment. Wax and bee venom, utilized as medicine, also provided by bees. To obtain silk, silkworms domesticate in China, and the method of breeding and rearing them was well document. During the war, a small number of bees were hives into enemy armies to eradicate them.

After the substantial accumulation of domesticated animals, pastoral and nomadic animal breeding emerged in the later stages of human history. Then it greatly influenced various peoples’ social and economic organization and lifestyles. In contrast to the Old World, domestication took place in the New World a little later. This is why man has been independent since he first appeared.

For further understanding regarding organic farming,

How to Get Ready for and Get Through a Food Crisis

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